Browse BiteForce data

Year: to
Broad taxonomic group: mammals
other
lepidosaurs
Substrate classification:
insulation tape
rubber
not listed
leather
foam
metal
plastic
padding
cloth
food
mixed
padded?
vinyl

Selection finds 123 rows.
Original ID In Dropbox Citation Year Journal Broad taxonomic group Taxonomic group Taxa Number of taxa Number of individuals Captive or wild? Transducer type Transducer description Covering / substrate Transducer protection Animal protection? Non-skid surface? Record impact location? Natural texture? Biting encouraged? Substrate classification Bite position description Bite position Lever bite location control Lever bite location (general) Outlever not specified Outlever reportedly constrained Outlever measured Number of trails per subject Full reference DOI Link
1 True Dessem and Druzinsky, 1992. 1992 J Morphol mammals non volant mammals Mustela putorius furo 1 2 captive double cantilever "The transducers consisted of three steel prongs resembling the tines of a fork with the central pro ▶ "The animals readily bit on either transducer when it was placed between their carnassial teeth. The ▶ False False False False False False not listed "The animals readily bit on either transducer when it was placed between their carnassial teeth. The ▶ carnassial controlled manually constrained bite location False True False >5 Dessem D, Druzinsky RE. 1992. Jaw-Muscle Activity in Ferrets, Mustela putorius furo. Journal of Morp ▶ DOI: 10.1002/jmor.1052130211 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmor.1052130211/abstract
2 True Herrel et al., 1999 1999 Func Ecol lepidosaurs lizards' Gallotia galloti 1 123 (16 adult males, 24 adult females, and 83 juveniles) wild? double cantilever not listed directly: Image shown and text states "The free end of the holder (= bite plates, see Fig ▶ False False False False False False metal "The place of application of bite forces is standardized by mounting acrylic stops on the free end o ▶ anterior jaw tips stops constrained bite location False True False 5 Herrel A, Spithoven L, Van Damme R, aDe Vree F. (1999). Sexual dimorphism of head size in Gallotia g ▶ DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2435.1999.00305.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2435.1999.00305.x/full
3 True Binder WJ, & Valkenburgh BV. 2000 2000 J Zool mammals non volant mammals Crocuta crocuta 1 18 captive double cantilever "The biting area was covered with rubber and duct tape to protect the teeth of the animals." False True False False False False rubber "Maximum bite force data were collected for each of 2 teeth areas, consisting of the most posterior ▶ two incisors and premolars animals' choice constrained bite location True False False Not indicated Binder WJ, Valkenburgh BV. (2000). Development of bite strength and feeding behaviour in juvenile sp ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00622.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2000.tb00622.x/abstract
4 True Herrel et al., 2001 2001 Can J Zool lepidosaurs lizards' Podarcis muralis, Lacerta vivipara 2 37 (16 males and 21 females) and 36 (20 males and 16 females) wild? double cantilever "The free end of the holder (bite plates; see Fig. 1) was then placed between the jaws of the animal ▶ False False False False False False metal "The place of application of bite forces was standardised by mounting acrylic stops onto the free en ▶ anterior jaw tips stops constrained bite location False True False 5 Herrel A, Van Damme R, Vanhooydonck B, De Vree F. (2001). The implications of bite performance for d ▶ DOI: 10.1139/z01-031 http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/z01-031#.U5Wa-iieek4
5 True Herrel et al., 2001 2001 J Exp Zool lepidosaurs lizards' Xenosaurus grandis, Xenosaurus platyceps, Xenosaurus newmanorum 3 21, 25, and 20 double cantilever "When the free end of the holder (= bite plates, see Fig. 1) was placed in between the jaws of the a ▶ False False False False False False metal "The place of application of bite forces was standardised by mounting acrylic stops onto the free en ▶ anterior jaw tips stops constrained bite location False True False 5 Herrel A, De Grauw E, Lemos-Espinal JA. (2001). Head shape and bite performance in xenosaurid lizard ▶ DOI: 10.1002/jez.1039 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jez.1039/abstract
6 True Herrel et al., 2002 2002 J Evol Biol other turtles various 28 1 to 33 per species - total of 144 double cantilever "When the free end of the holder was placed in between the jaws of the animal, prolonged and repeate ▶ False False False False False False metal "The place of application of bite forces was standardized by mounting acrylic stops (small animals) ▶ anterior jaw tips stops constrained bite location False True False 5 Herrel A, O’Reilly JC, Richmond AM. 2002. Evolution of bite performance in turtles. Journal of Evolu ▶ DOI: 10.1046/j.1420-9101.2002.00459.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1420-9101.2002.00459.x/full
7 True McBrayer and White 2002 2002 Copeia lepidosaurs lizards' Tupinambis teguixin 1 5 (3 males and 2 females) double cantilever "The force transducer is made of parallel aluminum bite bars." "When the force transducer was touche ▶ False False False True False False leather "The bite position was measured as the dis-tance between the most anterior tooth impressions in the ▶ anterior jaw tips controlled manually constrained bite location False False True >51 trial per lizard (?) with multiple bites each trial McBrayer, L. D. and White, T. D. (2002). Bite force, behavior, and electromyography in the teeid liz ▶ n/a http://www.jstor.org/stable/1447930
8 True Meyers et al., 2002 2002 Other lepidosaurs lizards' Cnemidophorus burti, Cnemidophorus tigris, Sceloporus magister, Sceloporus undulatus, 4 1, 10, 6, 38 double cantilever "In vivo bite forces were measured using a Kistler force transducer (type 9203, Kistler Inc., Switze ▶ False False False False False False not listed 2In vivo bite forces were measured using a Kistler force transducer (type 9203, Kistler Inc., Switze ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Meyers JJ, Herrel A, Birch J. 2002. Scaling of morphology, bite force and feeding kinematics in an i ▶ n/a n/a
9 True Verwaijen et al. 2002 2002 Func Ecol lepidosaurs lizards' Lacerta oxycephala, Podarcis melisellensis 2 54 (34 males, 13 females, 7 juveniles) and 55 (25 males, 13 females, 17 juveniles) double cantilever "The animals were induced to bite on two plates, fixed at a distance of 3·65 mm." "A full descriptio ▶ False False False False False False metal "Additionally, we estimated the jaw closing out-lever by measuring the distance between the quadratu ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Verwaijen D., Van Damme R., and Herrel A. 2002. Relationships between head size, bite force, prey ha ▶ DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2435.2002.00696.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2435.2002.00696.x/full
10 True Aguirre et al. 2002 2002 Proc Roy Soc B mammals bats various 21 1 to 29 per species - total of 156 double cantilever "(see Herrel et al.(1999a) for a more detailed technical description of the set-up)." - hence metal False False False False False False metal "bite forces were recorded at two positions along the tooth row for each trial: at the canines and a ▶ "two positions along the tooth row for each trial: at the canines and at the posterior tooth row." controlled manually constrained bite location False True False >5 Aguirre, L.F., Herrel, A., Van Damme, R. & Matthysen, E. (2002) Ecomorphological analysis of trophic ▶ DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2002.2011 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/269/1497/1271.short
11 True Dumont & Herrel 2003 2003 J Exp Biol mammals bats various 11 2 to 10 per species - total of 70 double cantilever "To protect the bats’ teeth and to provide a non-skid surface, the tips of the bite plates were cove ▶ False True True False False False cloth "To investigate the relationship between the point of application of bite force along the tooth row ▶ "three different bite points in seven bat species. The bite points included bilateral canine biting, ▶ controlled manually constrained bite location False True False >5 Dumont ER, Herrel A. 2003. The effects of gape angle and bite point on bite force in bats. Journal o ▶ DOI: 10.1242/​jeb.00375 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/206/13/2117.short
12 True Erickson et al., 2003 2003 J Zool other crocodylians Alligator mississippiensis 1 5341 load washer sandwich "Leather strips (2.5 mm thick×3 mm wide×20 mm long) were affixed with cyanoacrylate to the end of th ▶ False True False True False False leather "All trials were digitally videotaped at 30 frames/s with a Hi-8 digital camera recorder (Sony Inc., ▶ 11th maxillary tooth. filmed and controlled manually constrained bite location False True False >1 (usually 3-5) Erickson GM, Lappin AK, Van Vliet KA. 2003. The ontogeny of bite-force performance in American allig ▶ DOI: 10.1017/S0952836903003819 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1017/S0952836903003819/abstract
13 True Thompson et al., 2003 2003 J Exp Biol mammals non volant mammals Monodelphis domestica 1 16 (8 adults and 8 juvenile females) double cantilever "The distal end of each tine was also covered with a rubber coating to protect the teeth of the opos ▶ False True False False False False rubber "The position of the transducer along the jaw was determined videographically using a 60 Hz Hi-8 cam ▶ Three bite locations were identified: incisor or canine, premolar filmed and recorded constrained bite location False True False "many trials over several days" Thompson EN, Biknevicius AR, German RZ. 2003. Ontogeny of feeding function in the gray short-tailed ▶ DOI: 10.1242/​jeb.00181 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/206/5/923.short
14 True Nies and Ro 2004 2004 Brain Res Protocols mammals non volant mammals Rattus norvegicus (male Sprague–Dawley rat) 1 5 double cantilever "Initially, rats were trained to bite on a pair of brass plates attached to the force transducer wit ▶ "Initially, rats were trained to bite on a pair of brass plates attached to the force transducer wit ▶ False False False False False False metal "Initially, rats were trained to bite on a pair of brass plates attached to the force transducer wit ▶ incisorrs controlled manually constrained bite location False True False >5many trials - training to attain specific BF Nies M, Ro J-Y. 2004. Bite force measurement in awake rats. Brain Research Protocols 12: 180–185. DOI: 10.1016/j.brainresprot.2003.11.003 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1385299X03001168
15 True Erickson et al., 2004 2004 J Zool other crocodylians Alligator mississippiensis 1 28 load washer sandwich "Leather pieces 6-mm (medium-sized transducer) and 6-mm or 12-mm (large transducer) thick were affix ▶ False False False False False False leather "The small transducer had a very slender design to ensure standardized testing in which only the tee ▶ 11th maxillary tooth. filmed and controlled manually constrained bite location False True False 31-5 (usuallyl 2-3) Erickson GM, Lappin AK, Parker T, Vliet KA. 2004. Comparison of bite-force performance between long- ▶ DOI: 10.1017/S0952836903004400 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1017/S0952836903004400/abstract
16 True Lailvaux et al. 2004 2004 Proc Roy Soc B lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis carolinensis 1 403 (81 females, 102 juveniles, and 220 adult males) double cantilever "We measured biting force by using an isometric Kistler force transducer (type 9023, Kistler Inc., W ▶ False False False False False False metal "We induced lizards to bite forcefully on the free ends of the bite force device (see Herrel et al. ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Lailvaux SP, Herrel A, VanHooydonck B, Meyers JJ, Irschick DJ. 2004.Performance capacity, fighting t ▶ DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2004.2891 http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/271/1556/2501.short
17 True McBrayer 2004 2004 Zool J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Heliobolus lugubris, Pedioplanis namaquensis, Pedioplanis lineoocellata, Meroles suborbitalis 4 26, 16, 36, and 21 double cantilever "Biting performance was quantified by measuring maximal compressive bite force. Using foil strain ga ▶ False False False False False False not listed "Each individual was then induced to bite the transducer a minimum of three times to achieve a maxim ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False >3 McBrayer LD. 2004. The relationship between skull morphology, biting performance and foraging mode i ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2003.00106.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1096-3642.2003.00106.x/full
18 True van der Meij & Bout 2004 2004 J Exp Biol other birds various 36 36 double cantilever "rigid metal plates that are slightly pressed together by the bills of a bird biting on the plates ( ▶ False False False False False False metal "The birds were held by hand and trained to bite the metal plates. Most birds only used their beak t ▶ beak tip animals' choice constrained bite location False True False >5 van der Meij MAA, Bout RG. 2004. Scaling of jaw muscle size and maximal bite force in finches. The J ▶ DOI: 10.1242/​jeb.01091 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/207/16/2745.short
19 True Herrel et al., 2005 2005 Func Ecol other birds Geospiza fortis 1 147 double cantilever Bite forces were measured with a Kistler piezoelectric force transducer (type 9203, Kistler Inc., Sw ▶ False False False False False False metal "Fig. 1. Photograph taken in the field by A.P. Hendry showing a G. fortis on Santa Cruz crushing a s ▶ back of the beak. See fig. 1 controlled manually constrained bite location False True False 3 Herrel A, Podos J, Huber SK, Hendry AP. 2005a. Bite performance and morphology in a population of Da ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.0269-8463.2005.00923.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0269-8463.2005.00923.x/full
20 True Herrel et al., 2005 2005 J Evol Biol other birds Geospiza magnirostris, Geospiza fortis, Geospiza fuliginosa, Geospiza scandens, Platyspiza crassiros ▶ 9 11, 137, 65, 24, 28, 5, 2, 24, 30, double cantilever "Bite force was measured using a piezo-electric force transducer (Kistler Inc., Winterthur, Switzerl ▶ False False False False False False metal "Field photograph by A.P. Hendry of another G. fortis individual, illustrating the location where th ▶ back of the beak. See fig. 1 controlled manually constrained bite location False True False 3 Herrel A, Podos J, Huber SK, Hendry AP. 2005b. Evolution of bite force in Darwin’s finches: a key ro ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2004.00857.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2004.00857.x/full
21 True Huber et al., 2005 2005 J Exp Biol other fish Heterodontus francisci 1 5 for in situ; 4 for restrained load washer sandwich "Bite performance measurements were performed using a modified single-point load cell (Amcells Corp. ▶ False False False False False True food "The modified single-point load cell used in this study averages the signals generated by four strai ▶ anterior teeth controlled manually constrained bite location False True False 15 for in situ; 1 for restrained Huber DR, Eason TG, Hueter RE, Motta PJ. 2005. Analysis of the bite force and mechanical design of t ▶ DOI: 10.1242/​jeb.01816 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/208/18/3553.short
22 True Lappin & Husak 2005 2005 Am Nat lepidosaurs lizards' Crotaphytus collaris 1 58 (11 adult males and 47 females) double cantilever "Transducers were prepared by gluing a strip of leather (1 mm x 3mm x 25 mm) at the end of each plat ▶ False False False True False False leather "Lever mechanics predict and data show (A. K. Lappin, unpublished data) that the position along the ▶ variable but calibrated measured measured False False True 3 Lappin AK, Husak JF. 2005. Weapon performance, not size, determines mating success and potential rep ▶ DOI: 10.1086/432564 http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/432564
23 True Vanhooydonck et al. 2005a 2005 Func Ecol lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis grahami, Anolis lineatopus, Anolis valencienni 3 11, 31, and 13 double cantilever "We measured bite force for all individuals using an isometric Kistler force transducer (type 9203) ▶ False False False False False False metal "The tapping readily resulted in a characteristic threat response where the jaws are opened maximall ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Vanhooydonck B, Herrel AY, Van Damme R, Irshick DK. 2005. Does dewlap size predict male bite perform ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.0269-8463.2005.00940.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.0269-8463.2005.00940.x/full
24 True Vanhooydonck et al. 2005b 2005 Behav Ecol Sociobiol lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis carolinensis 1 403 (292 males and 111 females) double cantilever "We measured in vivo bite force for all individuals using an isometric Kistler force transducer (typ ▶ False False False False False False metal "The tapping readily resulted in a characteristic threat response where the jaws are opened maximall ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Vanhooydonck B, Herrel A, Van Damme R, Meyers JJ, Irschick DJ. 2005. The relationship between dewlap ▶ DOI: 10.1007/s00265-005-0022-y http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00265-005-0022-y#page-1
25 True Thomas et al. 2005 2005 Am Soc Eng Edu mammals non volant mammals Canis lupus 1 not reported double cantilever "Leather tine covers are attached to entice the wolf to bite the test device and provide protection ▶ False True False False False False leather "Another challenge to the accuracy of the measured forces can be seen on figure 5, which shows a whi ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False Not indicated Thomas SL, Shaad A, Denton NL, French RM. 2005. Design validation and testing of wolf bite meter. Co ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.14698.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.14698.x/full
26 True Irschick et al. 2006 2006 Oikos lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis carolinensis 1 222 double cantilever "We measured biting force by using an isometric Kistler force transducer (type 9023, Kistler Inc. Wi ▶ False False False False False False metal "We induced lizards to bite forcefully on the free ends of the bite force device (Herrel et al. 1999 ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Irschick, D. J., Ramos, M., Buckley, C., Elstrott, J., Carlisle, E., Lailvaux, S. P., Bloch, N., Her ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.14698.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.2006.0030-1299.14698.x/full
27 True Herrel & O'Reilly 2006 2006 Physiol Biochem Zool other turtles Chelydra serpentina, Staurotypus sp., Trachemys scripta, 3 13 and 39 double cantilever "In vivo bite forces were measured using isometric Kistler force transducers (types 9203, range 500 ▶ False False False False False False metal "The place of application of bite forces was standardized by mounting acrylic stops (small animals) ▶ anterior jaw tips stops constrained bite location False True False 5 Herrel A, O’Reilly JC. 2006. Ontogenetic scaling of bite force in lizards and turtles. Physiological ▶ DOI: 10.1086/498193 http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/498193
28 True Herrel & O'Reilly 2006 2006 Physiol Biochem Zool lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis equestris, Anolis garmani 2 11, 12, and 32 double cantilever same as above False False False False False False metal "The place of application of bite forces was standardized by mounting acrylic stops (small animals) ▶ anterior jaw tips stops constrained bite location False True False 5 AS ABOVE (repeated to represent lizards) DOI: 10.1086/498193 http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/498193
29 True Husak et al. 2006 2006 Copeia lepidosaurs lizards' Crotaphytus antiquus 1 30 (18 males and 12 females) double cantilever "Bite plates were prepared by gluing a strip of leather (1 x 3 x 25 mm) at the end of the outer surf ▶ False True False True False False leather "Therefore, we recorded the position of the leather strips along the jawline during each trial and m ▶ variable but calibrated measured measured False False True 3 Husak JF, Lappin AK, Fox SF, Lemos-Espinal JA. 2006. Bite-force performance predicts dominance in ma ▶ http://www.asihcopeiaonline.org/doi/abs/10.1643/0045-8511%282006%296%5B301%3ABPPDIM%5D2.0.CO%3B2
30 True Lailvaux and Irschick 2006 2006 Ethology lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis carolinensis 1 46? double cantilever We followed the protocol of Herrel et al. (2001a,b) to measure bite force by using an isometric Kist ▶ False False False False False False metal "We placed the free ends of the plates between the jaws of the animal, and induced the lizard to bit ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Lailvaux SP, Irschick DJ. 2006. No evidence for female association with high-performance males in th ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1439-0310.2006.01210.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0310.2006.01210.x/full
31 True Lappin et al. 2006a 2006 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Sauromalus ater 1 49 (34 males and 15 females) double cantilever "Prior to calibration and bite-force trials, the transducer was prepared by gluing a strip of leathe ▶ False False False False False False leather "Following each trial, the distance from the bite point on the lower jaw to the quadrate-articular j ▶ variable but calibrated measured measured False False True 3 Lappin, A.K., Hamilton, P.S. & Sullivan, B.K. 2006a. Bite-force performance and head shape in a sexu ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2006.00615.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2006.00615.x/full
32 True Lappin et al. 2006a 2006 Am Nat lepidosaurs lizards' Crotaphytus collaris 1 80 (42 males and 38 females) double cantilever "Peak bite-force performance was measured with a piezoelectric isometric force transducer (Type 9203 ▶ False True False True False False leather "Given that the position along the jaw line at which bites occur significantly affects bite force, w ▶ variable but calibrated measured measured False False True 3 Lappin AK, Brandt Y, Husak JF, Macedonia JM, Kemp DJ. 2006b. Gaping displays reveal and amplify a me ▶ DOI: 10.1086/505161 http://www.jstor.org/stable/3844679?seq=1&show_all_authors_google=true
33 True Measey & Herrel 2006 2006 Biol Lett other caecillians Boulengerula taitanus, Schistometopum thomense 2 6 and 6 double cantilever "Animals were hand held and induced to bite a short metal plate (covered with a thin layer of cloth) ▶ False False False False False False cloth "Static bite forces were measured using piezoelectric Kistler force transducers (rangeG50 N) positio ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False Not indicated Measey J, Herrel A. 2006. Rotational feeding in caecilians: putting a spin on the evolution of crani ▶ DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2006.0516 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1833987/
34 True van der Meij & Bout 2006 2006 J Exp Biol other birds various 18 2 to 4 double cantilever "To measure the maximal bite force we used a force transducer (Aikoh, Osaka, Japan; 9000 series) mou ▶ False False False False False False metal "The birds were held by hand and trained to bite the metal plates. The birds only used their beak ti ▶ beak tip animals' choice constrained bite location False True False Not indicated van der Meij M. A. A., Bout R. G. 2006. Seed husking time and maximal bite force in finches. The Jou ▶ http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00442-007-0726-y
35 True Irschick & Meyers 2007 2007 Oecologia lepidosaurs lizards' Urosaurus ornatus 1 90 (47 males and 43 females) double cantilever "Bite force was measured using an isometric Kistler force transducer (type 9023, Kistler Inc., Winth ▶ False False False False False False metal "We induced lizards to bite forcefully on the free ends of the bite force device (Herrel et al. 1999 ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Irschick DJ, Meyers JJ. 2007. An analysis of the relative roles of plasticity and natural selection ▶ DOI: 10.1007/s00442-007-0726-y http://www.jstor.org/stable/40210884
36 True Huyghe et al. 2007 2007 Zool lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis sheplani 1 24 (9 males and 15 females) double cantilever "Individual bite force capacity was measured using an isometric Kistler force transducer mounted on ▶ False False False False False False not listed "Individual bite force capacity was measured using an isometric Kistler force transducer mounted on ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Huyghe K, Herrel A, Vanhooydoncka B, Meyers JJ, Irschick DJ. 2007. Microhabitat use, diet, and perfo ▶ DOI: 10.1016/j.zool.2006.06.001 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944200606000341
37 True Lailvaux & Irschick 2007 2007 Am Nat lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis sagrei, Anolis distichus, Anolis angusticeps, Anolis evermanni, Anolis cristatellus, Anolis ▶ 6 38 to 47 double cantilever "We measured in vivo bite force for all individuals using an isometric Kistler force transducer (typ ▶ False False False False False False metal We measured in vivo bite force for all individuals using an isometric Kistler force transducer (type ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Lailvaux SP, Irschick DJ. 2007. The evolution of performance-based male fighting ability in Caribbea ▶ DOI: 10.1086/521234 http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/521234
38 True McBrayer & Anderson, 2007 2007 J Herpetol lepidosaurs lizards' Elgaria coerulea 1 19 (9 males and 10 females) double cantilever "Bite gape at the rubber-covered bite bar tips approximated the head height of adult lizards." False False False False False False rubber "The transducer was positioned so that only the anterior premaxillary and dentary teeth bit the tran ▶ anterior jaw tips controlled manually constrained bite location False True False 3-5 McBrayer LD, Abderson RA. 2007. Sexual size dimorphisms and bite force in the Northern Alligator Liz ▶ http://www.jstor.org/stable/40060449
39 True Herrel et al. 2007 2007 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis carolinensis 1 80 (40 males and 40 females) double cantilever "In vivo bite forces were measured using an isometric Kistler force transducer (type 9203; Kistler I ▶ False False False False False False metal "The place of application of bite forces was standardized by the length of the bite plates used." wh ▶ not clearly specified not clearly specified constrained bite location False True False 5 Herrel A, McBrayer LD, Larson PM. 2007. Functional basis for sexual differences in bite force in the ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00772.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00772.x/abstract
40 True Anderson et al., 2008 2008 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Gecko gekko, Tupinambis teguixin 2 14 and 16 (6 males and 2 females) double cantilever "Bite plates were covered with a thin layer of material (chamois) to prevent tooth damage and slippi ▶ False True True True True False leather "transducer output needs to be corrected for the lever system (fulcrum-to-bite distance) of the bite ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5-10 Anderson RA, McBrayer LD, Herrel A. 2008. Bite force in vertebrates: opportunities and caveats for u ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00905.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2007.00905.x/abstract
41 True Freeman and Leman 2008 2008 J Mammalogy mammals non volant mammals Peromyscus leucopus, P. maniculatus, Onychomys leucogaster, Reithrodontomys megalotis, Microtus ochr ▶ 11 1, 1, and 5 force-sensing printed circuit (Flexiforce) Extensive discussion: "We protected the thin piezo-resistive strip from the sharp teeth of our test ▶ True False False False False True mixed Discusses the problem of which part of the sensor being bitten. "Under field conditions we made ever ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False <5 Freeman PW, Lemen CA. 2008. Measuring bite force in small mammals with a piezo-resistive sensor. Jou ▶ DOI: 10.1644/07-MAMM-A-101R.1 http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1644/07-MAMM-A-101R.1
42 True Freeman and Leman 2008 2008 J Mammalogy mammals bats Myotis thysanodes, Lasiurus cinereus, E. fuscus. 3 1 to 19 force-sensing printed circuit (Flexiforce) AS ABOVE: True False False False False True mixed AS ABOVE not specified not specified not specified True False False <5 AS ABOVE (repeated to represent bats) DOI: 10.1644/07-MAMM-A-101R.1 http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1644/07-MAMM-A-101R.1
43 True Freeman and Leman 2008 2008 J Zool mammals bats Microtus ochrogaster, Neotoma floridana, Onychomys leucogaster, Peromyscus leucopus, Peromyscus man ▶ 13 1 to 22 force-sensing printed circuit (Flexiforce) 2008: "In all cases bite force was measured at the incisors as the rodent bit the sensor. The strong ▶ True False False False False False mixed "In all cases bite force was measured at the incisors as the rodent bit the sensor." incisors controlled manually constrained bite location False True False Not indicated Freeman PW and Lemen CA. 2008. A simple morphological predictor of bite force in rodents. Journal of ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00459.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00459.x/abstract
44 True Herral & Holanova 2008 2008 Zool lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis equestris, Anolis cuvieri, Anolis barahonae, Anolis baracoae, Anolis equestris persparsus, An ▶ 12 2 to 17 double cantilever "In vivo bite forces were measured using an isometric Kistler force transducer (type 9203, range7500 ▶ False False False False False False metal "The place of application of bite forces was standardized for all animals. Gape angle was standardiz ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Herrel A, Holanova V. 2008. Cranial morphology and bite force in Chamaeleolis lizards – Adaptations ▶ DOI: 10.1016/j.zool.2008.01.002 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S094420060800055X
45 True Schaerlaeken et al., 2008 2008 J Exp Biol lepidosaurs tuatara Sphenodon punctatus 1 14 (juveniles) double cantilever "An isometric Kistler force transducer (type 9203, Kistler, Wintherthur, Switzerland) mounted on a p ▶ False False False False False False not listed not specified not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Schaerlaeken V., Herrel A., Aerts P, Ross CF. 2008. The functional significance of the lower tempora ▶ DOI: 10.1093/icb/icm014 http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/47/1/107.long
46 True Herrel et al. 2008 2008 PNAS lepidosaurs lizards' Podarcis melisellensis, Podarcis sicula 2 100 (2 populations - 42 and 58) double cantilever "Bite forces were measured in 100 lizards (PodKopisˇte, n 42; Pod Mrcˇaru, n 58) during the spri ▶ False False False False False False not listed not specified not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Herrel A, Huyghe K, Vanhooydonck B, Backeljau T, Breugelmans K, Grbac I, Van Damme R, Irschick DJ. R ▶ DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0711998105 http://www.pnas.org/content/105/12/4792
47 True Jones & Lappin 2009 2009 J Roy Soc N Zeal lepidosaurs tuatara Sphenodon punctatus 1 2 double cantilever "To define a bite point such that transducer calibration and bite-force measurements were comparable ▶ False True False True False False leather "Using an in-lever:out-lever calculation, bite forces were standardised for variation in the positio ▶ variable but calibrated to anterior and posteriormost teeth. filmed and measured measured False False True 8 (male) and 2 (female) Jones MEH, Lappin AK. 2009. Bite-force performance of the last rhynchocephalian (Lepidosauria: Sphen ▶ DOI: 10.1080/03014220909510565 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03014220909510565#.U5WP7Cieek4
48 True Mara et al. 2009 2009 J Exp Zool other fish Sphyrna tiburo 1 10 load washer sandwich The tip of the rostrum was elevated and the metal arms of the transducer were placed between the ant ▶ False False False False False False metal "The tip of the rostrum was elevated and the metal arms of the transducer were placed between the an ▶ anterior tips of the jaws controlled manually constrained bite location False True False 3-5 Mara KR, Motta PJ, Huber DR. 2009. Bite Force and Performance in the Durophagous Bonnethead Shark, S ▶ DOI: 10.1002/jez.576 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jez.576/full
49 True Measey et al 2009 2009 Zool lepidosaurs lizards' Bradypodion pumilum 1 105 (58 males and 47 females) double cantilever "We followed the methodology of Herrel etal.,(1999) to measure in vivo bite force with a Kistler pie ▶ False False False False False False not listed "We followed the method of Herrel et al. (1999a) to measure in vivo bite force with a Kistler piezoe ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Measey JG, Hopkins K, Tolley K A. 2009. Morphology, ornaments and performance in two chameleon ecomo ▶ DOI: 10.1016/j.zool.2008.09.005 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0944200609000051
50 True Van Daele 2009 2009 Physiol Biochem Zool mammals non volant mammals Fukomys mechowii, Fukomys whytei, Fukomys amatus, Fukomys micklemi 4 9, 2, 3, and 4 double cantilever "Individual bite-force measurements were taken with an isometric Kistler force transducer, which wa ▶ False False False False False False metal "Mole-rats were allowed to bite five times, and the highest bite-force readout was used as an estima ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Van Daele PAAG, Herrel A, Adriaens D. 2009. Biting Performance in Teeth-Digging African Mole-Rats (F ▶ DOI: 10.1086/594379 http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/594379
51 True Pfaller et al. 2009 2009 J Zool other turtles Sternotherus minor 1 75 load washer sandwich "Leather strips were affixed to the biting surface of each beam to lower the strain energy density o ▶ False True False False False False leather "the bite plates were placed unilaterally between the jaws, centered mesiodistally at the trough of ▶ posterior part of the jaws controlled manually constrained bite location False True False 3 Pfaller JB, Herrer ND, Gignac PM, Erickson GM. 2009. Ontogenetic scaling of cranial morphology and b ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00660.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00660.x/full
52 True Santana & Dumont 2009 2009 J Evol Biol mammals bats Micronycteris hirsuta, Trachops cirrhosus, Tonatia saurophila, Lophostoma brasiliense, Lophostoma si ▶ 20 1 to 196 double cantilever "The tips of the bite plates were covered with medical tape to protect the bats’ teeth and to provid ▶ False True True False False False cloth "We recorded at least five bite force measurements for each bat at four bite positions. (Dumont, 199 ▶ 5 different locations targeted controlled manually constrained bite location False True False >5 Santana SE, Dumont ER. 2009. Connecting behaviour and performance: the evolution of biting behaviour ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01827.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01827.x/full
53 True Dumont et al. 2009 2009 J Zool mammals bats Centurio senex 1 26 double cantilever "The tips of both upper and lower bite plates were covered with a layer of cloth medical tape to pro ▶ False True True False False False cloth "Bite force was measured during unilateral molar biting, a posterior bite position where maximum bit ▶ unilateral molar controlled manually constrained bite location False True False >3 Dumont ER, Herrel A, Medellin BA, Vargas-Contreras JA, Santana SE. 2009. Built to bite: cranial desi ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00618.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00618.x/full
54 True Dechmann et al. 2009. 2009 J Mammalogy mammals bats Lophostoma silvicolum 1 By species and bite type: L. silvicolum - (12, 10, 9, and 8); T. saurophila - (10, 11, 8, and 8); T. ▶ double cantilever "The ends of the plates were covered with medical tape to provide a nonskid surface and avoid damage ▶ False True True False False False cloth not specified not specified not specified not specified True False False "Whenever possible, we took repeated measurements of bite force randomly during all 4 bite types des ▶ Dechmann DKN, Santana SE, Dumont ER. 2009. Roost making in bats—adaptations for excavating active te ▶ DOI: 10.1644/09-MAMM-A-097R.1 http://www.asmjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1644/09-MAMM-A-097R.1
55 False Husak et al. 2009 2009 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Crotaphytus collaris 1 10 double cantilever "Bite-force performance was measured with lizards at their field-active body temperature (approximat ▶ False False False False False False leather not specified not specified not specified not specified False False False 3 Husak JF, Lappin AK, Van Den Bussche RA. 2009. The fitness advantage of a high-performance weapon. B ▶ DOI: 10.111/j.1095-8312.2008.01176.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2008.01176.x/abstract
56 True Huyghe et al. 2009 2009 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Podarcis melisellensis 1 42 (all males) double cantilever "Bite forces were recorded by inducing lizards to bite onto two metal plates connected to an isometr ▶ False False False False False False metal not specified not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Huyghe K, Herrel A, Adriaens D, Tadić Z, Van Damme R. 2009. It is all in the head: morphological bas ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2008.01103.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2008.01103.x/full
57 True Herrel etal. 2009 2009 Physiol Biochem Zool lepidosaurs lizards' Tupinambis merianae 1 120 (50 males and 70 females) double cantilever "When the free end of the holder was placed between the jaws of an animal, prolonged and repeated bi ▶ False False False False False False metal not specified "Gape angle was standardized by moving the bite plates away from each other for larger ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Herrel A, Andrade DV, de Carvalho JE, Brito A, Abe A, Navas C. 2009. Aggressive Behavior and Perform ▶ DOI: 10.1086/605935 http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/605935
58 True Herrel etal. 2010 2010 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs tuatara Sphenodon punctatus 1 144 (74 males and 70 females) double cantilever "In vivo bite forces were measured using an isometric Kistler force transducer (9311B, range ±5.000 ▶ False False False False False False not listed "The place of application of bite forces was standardized for all animals. Bite forces were measured ▶ posterior part of the jaws controlled manually constrained bite location False True False 3 Herrel A, Moore JA, Bredeweg EM, Nelson NJ. 2010. Sexual dimorphism, body size, bite force and male ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2010.01433.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2010.01433.x/full
59 True Vanhoydonck et al. 2010 2010 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' various Liolaemus species 19 6 to 18 (including both sexes) double cantilever "We measured the in vivo bite force for all individuals using an isometric Kistler force transducer ▶ False False False False False False metal "We induced the lizards to bite the force transducer by tapping them on the side of the mouth. The t ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Vanhooydonck B, Cruz FB, Abdala CS, Azócar DLM, Boniono MF, Herrel A. 2010. Sex-specific evolution o ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2010.01519.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2010.01519.x/full
60 True Gowan et al. 2010 2010 Physiol Biochem Zool lepidosaurs lizards' Aspidoscelis sexlineata 1 145 (112 breeding season + 33 non-breeding season) double cantilever "Lizards were induced to bite a pre-calibrated bite force meter immediately after removal from the i ▶ False False False False False False not listed "Only bites occurring 2 mm from the tip of the bite force plate (the location of calibration) were i ▶ jaw tips controlled manually constrained bite location False True False >3 Gowan TA, McBrayer LD, Rostala DC. 2010. Seasonal variation in testosterone and performance in males ▶ DOI: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2010.03.014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0031938410001423
61 True Santana et al., 2010 2010 Func Ecol mammals bats Noctilio albiventris and various phyllostomid species 29 1 to 152 double cantilever "The tips of the bite plates were covered with medical tape to protect the bats’ teeth and to provid ▶ False True True False False False cloth "we measured the bats’ voluntary bite force at the canines and molars" canines and molars controlled manually constrained bite location False True False >5 Santana SE, Dumont ER, Davis JL, 2010. Mechanics of bite force production and its relationship to di ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2010.01703.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2435.2010.01703.x/full
62 True Freeman and Leman 2010 2010 J Zool mammals bats Anoura geoffroyi, Antrozous pallidus, Artibeus glaucus, Artibeus jamaicensis, Artibeus lituratus, Ca ▶ 39 1 to 28 force-sensing printed circuit (Flexiforce) "We used a variety of coverings to protect the thin sensors from being penetrated by teeth." False False False False False False mixed "We always took bite force so that both canines make contact with the sensor at the same time." canines controlled manually constrained bite location False True False Not indicated Freeman PW, Leman CA. 2010. Simple predictors of bite force in bats: the good, the better and better ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2010.01703.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2010.00741.x/full
63 True Sustiaita and Hertel 2010 2010 J Exp Biol other birds various 6 24, 29, 6, 3, 8, and 4 double cantilever "Forces were recorded as raptors gripped with all toes contacting the grip bars, or bit the bite pla ▶ False False False False False False metal "The devices were calibrated before and after each day of sampling by suspending masses ranging from ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 2-5 Sustaita, D. and Hertel, F. (2010). In vivo bite and grip forces, morphology and prey-killing behavi ▶ DOI:10.1242/jeb.041731 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/213/15/2617.short
64 True Huyghe et al. 2010 2010 J Exp Zool lepidosaurs lizards' Gallotia galloti 1 17 double cantilever Maximal bite force capacity was estimated by the highest of five recording trials of a lizard biting ▶ False False False False False False metal not specified not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Huyghe K, Husak JF, Moore IT, Vanhooydonck B, Van Damme R, Molina-Borja M, and Herrel A 2010. Effect ▶ DOI: 10.1002/jez.569 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jez.569/abstract
65 False Pfaller et al. 2011 2011 J Exp Biol other turtles Sternotherus minor 1 30 load washer sandwich "Leather strips were affixed to the biting surface of each beam to prevent injury to the rhamphothec ▶ False True False True False False leather unilateral at specific location where prey are crushed unilateral at specific location where prey are crushed controlled manually False False False 3 Pfaller JB, Gignac PM, Erickson GM. 2011. Ontogenetic changes in jaw-muscle architecture facilitate ▶ DOI:10.1242/jeb.048090 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/214/10/1655.long
66 True Vervust et al. 2011 2011 J Exp Biol other turtles Chelydra serpentina 1 4 double cantilever "All the animals were induced to bite on two plates, set at a fixed distance of 3.65 cm (see Herrel ▶ False False False False False False metal "the point of application of the bite force was standardized across trials." ...but how? not specified not specified not specified True False False 10 Vervust B, Brecko J, Herrel A. 2011. Temperature effects on snapping performance in the common snapp ▶ DOI: 10.1002/jez.650 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jez.650/full
67 True Becerra et al. 2011 2011 Can J Zool mammals non volant mammals Ctenomys talarum 1 42 (21 males and 21 females) load washer sandwich "The bite plates were covered with a thin protective coating made of leather, so the animals did not ▶ False True False False False False leather "The bite plates were covered with a thin protective coating made of leather, so the animals did not ▶ incisors? not specified not specified True False False 4-6 Becerra F, Echeverría A, Vassallo AI, Casinos A. 2011. Bite force and jaw biomechanics in the subter ▶ DOI: 10.1139/z11-007 http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/z11-007#.U5WLkyieek4
68 True Vanhooydonck et al. 2011 2011 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Acontias percivali 1 14 double cantilever "Bite forces were measured using an isometric Kistler force transducer (type 9203, range ± 500 N; Ki ▶ False False False False False False metal "The place at which the animals bit the plates was standardized for all animals. Gape angle (i.e. ho ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Vanhooydonck B, Boistel R, Fernandez V, Herrel A. 2011. Push and bite: trade-offs between burrowing ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.2010.01563.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2010.01563.x/abstract
69 True Santana et al. 2011 2011 PLoS ONE mammals bats Micronycteris microtis 1 17 (8 males and 9 females) double cantilever "The tips of the bite plates were covered with medical tape to protect the bats’ teeth from damage a ▶ False True True False False False cloth "For each bat, we recorded at least five bite force measurements at each of the the four bite positi ▶ average of 5 different targetted locations controlled manually constrained bite location False True False >5 Santana SE, Geipel I, Dumont ER, Kalka MB, Kalko EKV. 2011. All You Can Eat: High Performance Capaci ▶ DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0028584 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0028584
70 True D’Amore et al 2011 2011 PLoS ONE lepidosaurs lizards' Varanus komodoensis 1 10 double cantilever "This particular transducer originally was constructed by Binder and Van Valkenburgh [17] to acquire ▶ False True False False False False rubber "We note, however, that the model-based estimations are from a bite point about halfway along the to ▶ anterior half of the jaw not specified not specified True False False unclear - 22 trials among 10 individuals but no range of trials per individual given D’Amore DC, Moreno K, McHenry CR, Wroe S. 2011. The Effects of Biting and Pulling on the Forces Gene ▶ DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026226 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0026226
71 True La Croix et al. 2011 2011 J Zool mammals non volant mammals Canis latrans 1 12 double cantilever "The transducer was baited with meat and hand-held by the investigator (S. L. C.)." "While voluntary ▶ False False False False False True food "The bite point was the highest cusp of the mandibular first molar; this carnassial tooth is the larg ▶ mandibular first molar controlled manually constrained bite location False True False unclear - 40 trials among 12 individuals but no range of trials per individual given La Croix S, Zelditch ML, Shivik JA, Lundrigan BL, Holekamp KE. 2011. Ontogeny of feeding performance ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2011.00847.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2011.00847.x/full
72 True Measey etal. 2011 2011 J Zool lepidosaurs lizards' Bradypodion pumilum 1 96 double cantilever "We followed the method of Herrel et al. (1999a) to measure in vivo bite force with a Kistler piezoe ▶ False False False False False False metal not specified not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Measey GJ, Rebelo AD, Herrel A, Vanhooydonck B, Tolley KA. 2011. Diet, morphology and performance i ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2011.00861.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2011.00861.x/abstract
73 True Marshall et al 2012 2012 J Exp Biol other turtles Caretta caretta 1 450 double cantilever "Bite performance was measured in vivo using a force 177 transducer fitted into an apparatus 178 (fo ▶ False False False False False False not listed "Bite placement was always at the anterior tip of the jaws (Fig.1) and was rigorously controlled wi ▶ anterior jaw tips stops constrained bite location False True False 3 (adults) or 5 (hatchlings and juveniles) Marshall CD, Guzman A, Narazaki T, Sato K, Kane EA, Sterba-Boatwright BD. 2012. The ontogenetic scal ▶ DOI: 10.1242/​jeb.074385 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/215/23/4166.short
74 True Henningsen and Irschick 2012 2012 Func Ecol lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis carolinensis 1 243 double cantilever "We measured maximum bite force by inducing the animals to bite on the padded ends of steel bite pla ▶ False False False False False False padded? not specified not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 (2-3 bites in each of two sessions) Henningsen JP, Irschick DJ. 2012. An experimental test of the effect of signal size and performance ▶ DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2011.01893.x http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2435.2011.01893.x/abstract
75 True Erickson et al. 2012 2012 PLoS ONE other crocodylians Alligator mississippiensis, Alligator sinensis, Caiman crocodilus, Caiman latirostris, Caiman yacare ▶ 21 83 (ranging from 1-15 across the 23 species) load washer sandwich "The bite forces were recorded using sandwich transducers and a portable charge amplification system ▶ False False False False False False leather I can't find any info not specified not specified not specified True False False 3-5 Erickson GM, Gignac PM, Steppan SJ, Lappin AK, Vliet KA, Brueggen JD, Inouye BD, Kledzik D, Webb GJW ▶ DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031781 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0031781
76 True Schaerlaeken et al. 2012 2012 J Exp Biol lepidosaurs lizards' Dracaena guianensis, Tupinambis merianae 2 28 and 60 double cantilever "When placing the free end of the holder between the teeth of the animal, prolonged and repeated bit ▶ False False False False False False metal "The place of application of bite forces was standardized for all animals and occurred at the tip of ▶ tip of the jaws controlled manually? constrained bite location False True False 5 Schaerlaeken V, Holanova V, Boistel R, Aerts P, Velensky P, Rehak I, Andrade DV, Herrel A. 2012. Bui ▶ DOI: 10.1002/jez.1730 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jez.1730/abstract
77 True Kaliontzopoulou et al. 2012 2012 Evol Ecol lepidosaurs lizards' Podarcis hispanica, P. bocagei 2 63 and 62 double cantilever Bite force was measured using an isometric Kistler force transducer (type 9203, Kistler Inc., Winter ▶ False False False False False False metal "The tip of the metal plates where the lizards bit was delimited with a marker to ensure all lizards ▶ anterior jaw tips? stops constrained bite location False True False 5 Kaliontzopoulou, A, Adams, D. C, van der Meijden, A, Perera, A, Carretero, M. A, Relationships betwe ▶ DOI: 10.1007/s10682-011-9538-y http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10682-011-9538-y
78 True Becerra et al. 2012 2012 Zool mammals non volant mammals Ctenomys talarum 1 load washer sandwich "Bite forces were registered during experimental sessions in which animals were induced to bite the ▶ False True False False False False leather "The bite plates were covered with a thin protective coating made of leather, so the animals did not ▶ incisors but not specified not specified not specified True False False not indicated Becerra F, Echeveria AI, Marcos A, Casinos A, Vassalloa AI (2012) Sexual selection in a polygynous r ▶ DOI: 10.1016/j.zool.2012.05.002 http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/23040177
79 True Grubich et al. 2012 2012 Nat Sci Rep lepidosaurs lizards' Serrasalmus rhombeus 1 15 load washer sandwich "This species readily performed multiple defensive bites with the transducer placed between the tips ▶ False False False False False False not listed "This species readily performed multiple defensive bites with the transducer placed between the tips ▶ jaw tips controlled manually constrained bite location False True False Not indicated Grubich JR, Huskey S, Crofts S, Orti G, and Porto J (2012) Mega-Bites: Extreme jaw forces of living ▶ DOI: 10.1038/srep01009 http://www.nature.com/srep/2012/121220/srep01009/full/srep01009.html
80 True Chazeua et al 2013 2013 J Zool mammals non volant mammals Microcebus murinus 1 28 double cantilever "The tips of both upper and lower bite plates were covered with a layer of cloth medical tape to pro ▶ False True True False False False cloth "The distance between the bite plates was adjusted to assure constant gape. Bite force was measured ▶ molar controlled manually constrained bite location False True False 10 (5 in two sessions separated by a month) Chazeau C, Marchal J, Hackert R, Perret M, and Herrel A. (2013) Proximate determinants of bite force ▶ DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12011 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jzo.12011/abstract
81 True Gröning et al. 2013 2013 Roy Soc Interface lepidosaurs lizards' Tupinambis merianae 1 1 double cantilever "The measurements were taken with a piezoelectric isometric Kistler force transducer (9311B; range + ▶ False False False False False False not listed Figure 4 anterior jaw tips and jaw mid point controlled manually constrained bite location False True False 20 (10 per jaw position) Gröning, F, Jones, M. E. H, Curtis, M, Herrel, A, O'Higgins, P, Evans, S. E, Fagan, M. F, The import ▶ DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2013.0216 http://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/10/84/20130216.full.pdf+html
82 True Edwards and Lailvaux 2013 2013 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis carolinensis and A. sagrei 2 176 (101 males and 75 females - both species combined) double cantilever "Lizards were induced to bite a force plate by tapping their cheek until their mouth opened, then li ▶ False False False False False False metal "Lizards were induced to bite a force plate by tapping their cheek until their mouth opened, then li ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Edwards J R, Lailvaux SP. (2013) Do interspecific interactions between females drive shifts in habit ▶ DOI: 10.1111/bij.12180 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12180/full
83 True Huyghe et al. 2013 2013 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Zootoca vivipara 1 60 (45 males and 15 virgin females) double cantilever Maximal bite force capacity was quantified by making the lizards bite onto two metal plates at a fix ▶ False False False False False False metal "Maximal bite force capacity was quantified by making the lizards bite onto two metal plates at a fi ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 Huyghe, K., San-Jose, L. M., Peñalver Alcázar, M. and Fitze, P. S. (2013), An ecomorphological analy ▶ DOI: 10.1111/bij.12140 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12140/full
84 True Segall et al. 2013 2013 J Exp Biol lepidosaurs lizards' Bradypodion pumilum and B. occidentale 2 10 and 10 double cantilever "An isometric Kistler force transducer (type 9203, Kistler, Winterthur, Switzerland) mounted on a pu ▶ False False False False False False not listed "Chameleons were manually stimulated to open their mouth by touching the side of the jaw. When five ▶ not specified not specified not specified True False False 5 per treatment Segall M, Tolley KA, Vanhooydonck B, Measey GJ, Herrel A (2013) Impact of temperature on performanc ▶ DOI: 10.1242/​jeb.092353 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/216/20/3828.short
85 True Becerra et al. 2013 2013 J Exp Zool mammals non volant mammals Ctenomys tuconax; Caviomorpha; Octodontoidea 1 14 double cantilever "The bite plates were covered with a thin protective coating made of leather for the animals not to ▶ False True False False False False leather "The separation between the movable bite plates was adjusted so that the gape angle of adults and ju ▶ incisors? not specified not specified True False False 4-6 Becerra F, Casinos A, Vassallo AI. 2013. Biting performance and skull biomechanics of a chisel tooth ▶ DOI: 10.1002/jez.1770 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jez.1770/full
86 False Cameron et al. 2013 2013 J Exp Biol lepidosaurs lizards' Hemidactylus frenatus 1 95 (46 males and 49 females) double cantilever Maximum bite force was measured using a custom-built sensor consisting of two metal plates (8×25×1 m ▶ "The two protruding plates were covered in three layers of flesh-like tape (Elastoplast, Beiersdorf, ▶ False False False False False False cloth not specified not specified not specified False False False 10+ (5+ trials in two sessions) Cameron SF, Wynn ML, Wilson RS. 2013. Sex-specific trade-offs and compensatory mechanisms: bite forc ▶ DOI:10.1242/jeb.083063 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/early/2013/06/27/jeb.083063
87 False Edwards et al. 2013 2013 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Nucras holubi, N. intertexta, N. lalandii, N. tessellata 0 5, 19, 1, 1 (not included since would not bite), and 2 double cantilever "The maximal bite force out of five trials was determined by having the lizard bite two metal plates ▶ "having the lizard bite two metal plates" False False False False False False metal not specified not specified not specified False False False 5 Edwards S,Tolley KA, Vanhooydonck B, Measey GJ, Herrel A. 2013. Is dietary niche breadth linked to m ▶ DOI: 10.1111/bij.12148 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12148/abstract
88 False Porro et al. 2014 2014 J Exp Biol lepidosaurs lizards' Uromastyx geyri 1 1 double cantilever (likely metal) False False False False False False not listed not specified not specified not specified False False False 39 Porro LB, Ross CF, Iriarte-Diaz J, O'Reilly JC, Evans SE, Fagan MJ. 2014. In vivo cranial bone strai ▶ DOI: 10.1242/​jeb.096362 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/217/11/1983.full.pdf+html?sid=3676a3c7-f69c-42a2-b5ac-fa00084340b5
89 False Becerra et al. 2014 2014 J Exp Zool mammals non volant mammals Ctenomys australis , Octodon degus (middle), and Chinchilla laniger 3 10, 10, and 10 load washer sandwich "The bite plates were separated to set a similar gape angle (10°), and covered with a thin protectiv ▶ False True False False False False leather not specified controlled manually constrained bite location False True False 4-6 Becerra F, Echeverría AI, Casinos A, Vassallo AI. 2014. Another one bites the dust: bite force and e ▶ DOI: 10.1002/jez.1853 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jez.1853/abstract
90 False da Silva et al. 2014 2014 PLoS ONE lepidosaurs lizards' four of the five phenotypic forms of the B. melanocephalum-B. thamnobates species complex 0 155 in total double cantilever "The bite plate was then placed between the jaws of the chameleon, which typically resulted in the c ▶ False False False False False False not listed not specified not specified not specified False False False 5 da Silva JM, Herrel A, Measey GJ, Tolley KA. 2014. Sexual dimorphism in bite performance drives morp ▶ DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086846 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0086846
91 False Broeckhoven & Mouton 2014 2014 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Ouroborus cataphractus, Karusasaurus polyzonus 2 39 and 36 double cantilever "Bite force was recorded by inducing the lizards to bite onto two metal plates." False False False False False False metal not specified not specified not specified False False False Not indicated Broeckhoven C, Mouton P le FM. 2014. Under pressure: morphological and ecological correlates of bite ▶ DOI: 10.1111/bij.12242 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12242/full
92 False Sagonas et al. 2014 2014 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Lacerta trilineata 1 154 total: 86 (56 males and 20 females - mainland) and 68 (48 males and 20 females - insular) double cantilever "lizards were induced to bite a pair of thin metal plates" False False False False False False metal not specified not specified not specified False False False 3 Sagonas, K., Pafilis, P., Lymberakis, P., Donihue, C.M., Herrel, A., Valakos, E.D. 2014. Insularity ▶ DOI: 10.1111/bij.12290 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12290/abstract
93 False Huyghe et al. 2014 2014 Behav Ecol Sociobiol lepidosaurs lizards' Podarcis melisellensis 1 47 double cantilever "These morphological and performance measures were taken from an earlier study in this population (s ▶ False False False False False False metal not specified not specified not specified False False False 5 Huyghe, K., Van Damme, R., Breugelmans, K., Herrel, A., Vanhooydonck, B., Tadič, Z., Backeljau, T. 2 ▶ DOI 10.1007/s00265-014-1746-3 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00265-014-1746-3#page-1
94 False Fabre et al. 2014 2014 Evol Biol lepidosaurs lizards' Tupinambis merianae 1 19 (10 males and 9 females) double cantilever "When the free end of the holder was placed between the jaws of an animal, prolonged and repeated bi ▶ False False False False False False not listed unclear - "all animals were biting at the level of the premaxillary teeth" stops constrained bite location False True False 5 Fabre A-C, Andrade DV, Huyghe K, Cornette R, Herrel A. 2014. Interrelationships between bones, muscl ▶ DOI 10.1007/s11692-014-9286-3 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11692-014-9286-3#page-1
95 True Herrel et al. 2014 2014 J Zool lepidosaurs lizards' Uromastyx aegyptia 1 12 double cantilever "Lizards are typically eager to bite when held and were stimulated to bite the trans- ducer by gentl ▶ False False False False False False not listed "The place of application of bite forces was standardized for all animals by aligning the jaws with ▶ anterior jaw tips stops constrained bite location False False False 5 Herrel A, Castilla AM, Al-Sulaiti MK, Wessels JJ. In Press. Does large body size relax constraints o ▶ DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12089 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jzo.12089/full
96 False Noble et al. 2014 2014 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Eulamprus quoyii 1 178 double cantilever Bite force was measured using a Kistler force transducer (Kistler Inc.) that was connected to a Kist ▶ "We induced lizards to bite two plastic plates by gently pinching the sides of their mouth." False False False False False False plastic not specified not specified not specified False False False >5 Noble DWA, Fanson KV, Whiting MJ. 2014. Sex, androgens, and whole-organism performance in an Austral ▶ DOI: 10.1111/bij.12252 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12252/abstract
97 True Erickson et al. 2014 2014 J Zool other crocodylians Crocodylus porosus; Crocodylus johnsoni; Alligator mississippiensis 3 26, 24, and 41 more than one "To protect the animal’s teeth during biting events and provide a consistent bite point, leather pad ▶ False True False True False False leather I can't find any info not specified not specified not specified True False False "Multiple biting events were recorded for each individual." Erickson, G. M., Gignac, P. M., Lappin, A. K., Vliet, K. A., Brueggen, J. D. and Webb, G. J. W. (201 ▶ DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12081 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jzo.12081/abstract
98 True Sustaita et al. 2014 2014 Biol J Linn Soc other birds Lanius ludovicianus 1 56 (31 adult males, 10 adult females, 5 juvenile males, 10 juvenile females) double cantilever �We used the device described and implemented by Sustaita & Hertel (2010) to measure voluntary bite ▶ "Holding the head and body of the shrike steady in a vertical orientation to the devices, we slowly ▶ False False False False False False not listed We performed calibrations at various points throughout the study, by suspending masses ranging from ▶ animals' choice constrained bite location False True False 3 Sustaita D, Rubega MA. 2014. The anatomy of a shrike bite: bill shape and bite performance in Logger ▶ DOI: 10.1111/bij.12298 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12298/abstract
99 True Krüger et al. 2014 2014 Molec Ecol mammals non volant mammals Myotis dasycneme, Myotis daubentonii 2 20 and 20 double cantilever “We used the device described and implemented by Sustaita & Hertel (2010) to measure voluntary bite ▶ "We measured maximum bite force in 20 bats each of M. dasycneme and M. daubentonii, by letting the b ▶ False False False False False False not listed "Bite forces were corrected for the effect of the lever and transducer system." not specified not specified False False False 6 Krüger F, Clare EL, Greif S, Siemers BM, Symondson WOC, Sommer, RS. 2014. An integrative approach to ▶ DOI: 10.1111/mec.12512 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.12512/abstract;jsessionid=869764050036F8188AB215D1E2C ▶
100 False Lappin & Jones 2014 2014 J Exp Biol lepidosaurs lizards' Crotaphytus collaris, Eublepharis macularius, Elgaria multicarninata, Gambelia wislizenii, Gekko gec ▶ 11 26 captive double cantilever "The components include a piezoelectric isometric force transducer (type 9203, Kistler, Switzerland) ▶ "To test for the effects of biting substrate on bite-force performance, pads measuring 26×9×1 mm wer ▶ True True True True True True mixed "All trials were recorded from a lateral view with a Canon Vixia HFS10 camcorder. From the videos, t ▶ variable but calibrated measured measured False False True 54 for Crotaphytus collaris, Eublepharis macularius, and Elgaria multicarinata specimensor and 27 fo ▶ Lappin AKL, Jones MEH. 2014. Reliable quantification of bite-force performance requires use of appro ▶ DOI:10.1242/jeb.106385 http://jeb.biologists.org/content/217/24/4303.article-info
101 False Whiting et al. 2015 2015 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Ceratophora tennentii 0 "We measured bite force using a Kistler force transducer (Kistler Inc.), connected to a Kistler char ▶ "We measured bite force using a Kistler force transducer (Kistler Inc.), connected to a Kistler char ▶ False False False False False False plastic False False False 3 Whiting MJ, Noble DWA, Somaweera R. 2015. Sexual dimorphism in conspicuousness and ornamentation in ▶ DOI: 10.1111/bij.12610 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12610/full
102 True Thomas et al. 2015 2015 J Zool mammals non volant mammals Microcebus murinus 1 wild double cantilever "We measured bite force from all individuals using a piezoelectric force transducer (Kistler, type 9 ▶ "The tips of both upper and lower bite plates were covered with a layer of cloth medical tape to pro ▶ False True True False False False cloth "Bite force was measured during unilateral molar biting, a posterior bite position where maximum bit ▶ unilateral molar controlled manually constrained bite location False True False Thomas P, Pouydebat E, Hardy I, Aujard F, Ross CF, Herrel A. 2015. Sexual dimorphism in bite force i ▶ DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12225 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jzo.12225/abstract
103 False Meyers & Irschick 2015 2015 Biol J Linn Soc lepidosaurs lizards' Urosaurus ornatus, Sceloporus undulatus, Sceloporus clarkii, Aspidoscelis flagellicaudus, Cophosauru ▶ 10 638 wild double cantilever "Bite forces were measured using a Kistler piezoelectric force transducer (type 9203, Kistler Inc.) ▶ False False False False False False metal "Animals were persuaded to bite on the bite plates connected to the transducer, and the maximum valu ▶ not specified not specified not specified False False False 5 Meyers JJ, Irschick DJ. 2015. Does whole-organism performance constrain resource use? A community te ▶
104 False Montuelle & Williams 2015 2015 PLoS ONE lepidosaurs lizards' Gekko gecko 1 5 captive "Bite force measurements were made using a strain gauge-based bite force transducer (designed after ▶ False False False False False False not listed False False False Montuelle SJ, Williams SH. 2015. In Vivo measurement of mesokinesis in Gekko gecko: the role of cran ▶ DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134710 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0134710
105 False Lopez-Darias et al. 2015 2015 Func Ecol lepidosaurs lizards' Gallotia atlantica, G. bravoana, G. caesaris, G. galloti, G. intermedia, G. simonyi, G. stehlini 7 281 wild double cantilever "We measured in vivo bite forces for all individuals using an isometric Kistler force transducer (ty ▶ False False False False False False not listed not specified not specified not specified False False False 5 Lopez-Darias M, Vanhooydonck B, Cornette R, Herrel A. 2015. Sex-specific differences in ecomorpholog ▶ DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.12353 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12353/abstract
106 False McLean & Stuart-Fox 2015 2015 Behav Ecol Sociobiol lepidosaurs lizards' Ctenophorus maculosus 1 wild double cantilever "We determined the maximal bite force of lizards using a purposely built measuring device as per Her ▶ "Lizards were induced to bite on two foam-covered metal plates, which exert a pull on the piezoelect ▶ False True False False False False foam not specified not specified not specified False False False McLean CA, Stuart-Fox D. 2015. Rival assessment and comparison of morphological and performance-base ▶ DOI: 10.1007/s00265-014-1863-z http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00265-014-1863-z
107 False Corbin et al. 2015 2015 Func Ecol other birds Tyrannus forficatus, Cyanocitta cristata, Baeolophus bicolor, Poecile atricapillus, Sitta carolinens ▶ 12 double cantilever "Biteforce (N) was measured with a piezoelectric force transducer mounted to aluminium plates and to ▶ False False False False False False metal "Birds either bit these plates voluntarily or were coaxed to bite by inserting the soft pick end of ▶ not specified not specified not specified False False False 3 Corbin CE, Lowenberger LK, Gray BL. 2015. Linkage and trade-off in trophic morphology and behavioura ▶ DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.12385 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12385/full
108 False Van Damme et al. 2015 2015 Zoomorphol lepidosaurs lizards' Podarcis melisellensis, P. siculus 2 1025? wild double cantilever "We measured bite force using an isometric Kistler force transducer (type 9203, Kistler Inc), mounte ▶ "We measured bite force using an isometric Kistler force transducer (type 9203, Kistler Inc), mounte ▶ False False False False False False not listed not specified not specified not specified False False False Van Damme R, Wijnrocx K, Boeye J, Huyghe K, Van Dongen S. 2015. Digit ratios in two lacertid lizards ▶ DOI: 10.1007/s00435-015-0275-6 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00435-015-0275-6
109 False Vanhooydonck et al. 2015 2015 J Zool lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis baracoae 1 23 captive double cantilever "We measured in vivo bite force for all individuals using an isometric Kistler force transducer (typ ▶ False False False False False False not listed not specified not specified not specified False False False 5 Vanhooydonck B, Huyghe K., Holánová V, van Dongen S, Herrel A. 2015. Differential growth of naturall ▶ DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12236 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jzo.12236/full
110 False Laivaux et al 2015 2015 Ecol Evol lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis carolinensis 1 17+18 wild double cantilever "We measured bite force using standard methods. Briefly, lizards were induced to bite forcefully on ▶ False False False False False False not listed not specified not specified not specified False False False Lailvaux SP, Leifer J, Kircher BK, Johnson MA. 2015. The incredib le shrinking dewlap: signal size, ▶ DOI: 10.1002/ece3.1690 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ece3.1690/full
111 False Des Roches et al. 2015 2015 Evol Ecol lepidosaurs lizards' Aspidoscelis inornata, Holbrookia maculata, Sceloporus cowlesi 3 18+15+18+19+20+15 wild double cantilever "We used an isometric Kistler force transducer (type 9203, Kistler Inc.) connected to Kistler charge ▶ False False False False False False metal not specified not specified not specified False False False Des Roches S, Brinkmeyer MS, Rosenblum EB. 2015. Ecological release and directional change in White ▶ DOI: 10.1007/s10682-014-9740-9 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10682-014-9740-9
112 False Driessens et al. 2015 2015 Behav Ecol Sociobiol lepidosaurs lizards' 0 False False False False False False not specified not specified not specified False False False Driessens T, Huyghe K, Vanhooydonck B, Van Damme R. 2015. Messages conveyed by assorted facets of th ▶ DOI: 10.1007/s00265-015-1938-5 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00265-015-1938-5
113 False Munoz et al 2015 2015 J Nat Hist lepidosaurs lizards' 0 False False False False False False False False False DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2015.1005714 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00222933.2015.1005714?scroll=top&needAccess=true
114 False Senawi et al 2015 2015 Func Ecol mammals bats Emballonura monticola, Taphozous melanopogon, Hipposideros bicolor, Hipposideros bicolor, Hipposider ▶ 35 789 wild "In vivo bite force for captured insectivorous bats was measured using an isometric Kistler force tr ▶ False False False False False False not listed "Bite force was recorded at the molars and measurements were repeated six times for each individual. ▶ molars controlled manually constrained bite location False True False 6 Senawi J. Schmieder D, Siemers B, Kingston T. 2015. Beyond size – morphological predictors of bite f ▶ DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.12447 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12447/full
115 False While et al. 2015 2015 Ecol Lett lepidosaurs lizards' Podarcis muralis 1 133 (see Supp Info) wild "Bite force measures were collected using a specially designed bite force meter, constructed from a ▶ False True False False False False insulation tape not specified not specified not specified False False False While GM, Michaelides S, Heathcote RJP, MacGregor HEA, Zajac N, Beninde J, Carazo P, Perez i de Lanu ▶ DOI: 10.1111/ele.12531 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ele.12531/epdf
116 False Husak et al. 2016 2016 Func Ecol lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis carolinensis 0 double cantilever "Briefly, we used a Kistler isometric force transducer connected to custom-built stainless-steel bit ▶ "Briefly, we used a Kistler isometric force transducer connected to custom-built stainless-steel bit ▶ False True False False False False padding False False False 3x3 Husak JF, Ferguson HA, Lovern MB. 2016. Trade-offs among locomotor performance, reproduction and imm ▶ DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.12653 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12653/full
117 False Donihue et al. 2016 2016 Func Ecol lepidosaurs lizards' Podarcis erhardii 0 "Using a purpose-built bite force metre composed of metal biting plates connected to a Kistler force ▶ False False False False False False metal anterior jaw tips stops constrained bite location False True False 3 Donhihue CM, Brock KM, Foufopoulus, Herrel A. 2016. Feed or fight: testing the impact of food availa ▶ DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.12550 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12653/full
118 False Herrel et al 2016 2016 Integ Comp Biol lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis carolinensis, Gallotia atlantica, G. caesaris, G. stehlini, Tropidurus itambere 5 "Next, we measured bite force using an isometric Kistler force transducer place in a custom-made set ▶ False False False False False False not listed not specified not specified not specified False False False 5 Herrel A, Lopez-Darias M, Vanhooydonck B, Cornette R, Kohlsdorf T, Brandt R. 2016. Do adult phenotyp ▶ DOI:10.1093/icb/icw010 http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/56/3/469
119 False Santana 2016 2016 Func Ecol mammals bats Uroderma bilobatum, Enchisthenes hartii, Carollia perspicillata, Vampyressa pusilla, Artibeus jamai ▶ 0 wild double cantilever "Shortly after capture, the bats’ voluntary bite force was measured using a piezoelectric force tran ▶ "The tips of the bite plates were covered with a layer of medical tape (3M NexcareTM Absolute Waterp ▶ False True True False False False cloth "Bite force was measured at a deep bilateral bite position with the first molars on both sides of th ▶ first molar controlled manually constrained bite location False True False >5 Santana SE. 2016. Quantifying the effect of gape and morphology on bite force: biomechanical modelli ▶ DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.12522 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12522/pdf
120 False Santana & Miller 2016 2016 Integ Comp Biol mammals bats Eptesicus fuscus 1 7 captive double cantilever "We used a piezoelectric bite-force meter (Herrel et al. 1999; Santana et al. 2010) to measure maxim ▶ "We used a piezoelectric bite-force meter (Herrel et al. 1999; Santana et al. 2010) to measure maxim ▶ False False False False False False not listed "We measured deep bilateral bite forces (engaging premolars and molars of both the right and left to ▶ molars controlled manually constrained bite location False True False 5 every 2.5 days Santana SE, Miller KE. 2016. Extreme postnatal scaling in bat feeding performance: a view of ecomorp ▶ DOI: 10.1093/icb/icw075 http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/56/3/459.abstract
121 False Santana & Miller 2016 2016 Integ Comp Biol mammals bats various 14 wild double cantilever "We used a piezoelectric bite-force meter (Herrel et al. 1999; Santana et al. 2010) to measure maxim ▶ "We used a piezoelectric bite-force meter (Herrel et al. 1999; Santana et al. 2010) to measure maxim ▶ False False False False False False not listed "We measured deep bilateral bite forces (engaging premolars and molars of both the right and left to ▶ molars controlled manually constrained bite location False True False Santana SE, Miller KE. 2016. Extreme postnatal scaling in bat feeding performance: a view of ecomorp ▶ DOI: 10.1093/icb/icw075 http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/content/56/3/459.abstract
122 True Rice et al. 2016 2016 Mar Biol other fish Rhizoprionodon terraenovae 1 wild load washer sandwich "A bite-force gauge (Fig. 1) constructed for this project was used to measure force at both the ante ▶ "The aluminum plates were covered with two layers of vinyl tape to soften the bite surface because t ▶ False False False False False True vinyl "The bite-force gauge was placed at the anterior-most position in the jaw for anterior biteforce mea ▶ anterior and posterior jaw locations controlled manually constrained bite location False True False Rice KW, Buchholz R, Parson GR. 2016 Correlates of bite force in the Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizo ▶ DOI: 10.1007/s00227-016-2814-1 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00227-016-2814-1
123 True Wittorski et al. 2016 2016 J Anat lepidosaurs lizards' Anolis oxylophus, Anolis humilis, Anolis limifrons, Anolis frenatus, Anolis auratus, Anolis pentapri ▶ 15 "When the bite plates were placed between the jaws of the animal, prolonged and repeated" False False False False False False not listed "The place of application of bite forces was standardized for all animals by metal stops that were m ▶ anterior jaw tips stops constrained bite location False True False Wittorski A, Losos JB, Herrl A. 2016. Proximate determinants of bite force in Anolis lizards. J Anat ▶ DOI: 10.1111/joa.12394 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/joa.12394/abstract